• History,  Perfumes

    The fragrance wheel

    Have you ever used the fragrance wheel to purchase a new scent? Many of us use our sense of smell to determine if we like a perfume or aftershave, but the fragrance wheel allows us to see which fragrance notes sit in which category.

    Michael Edwards, a leading fragrance expert and consultant, created the fragrance wheel.

    The fragrance wheel

    He developed the wheel in 1983 as a visual representation to categorise and classify different fragrances based on their dominant scent characteristics. This would make it easier to find a scent under a specific category.

    Michael Edwards is well-known in the perfume industry for his extensive fragrance knowledge and expertise. His creation of the fragrance wheel has become a widely used tool in the world of perfumery, helping both professionals and consumers understand and appreciate the diverse range of scents available in the market.

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    How the fragrance wheel works

    The wheel is divided into four primary fragrance families or categories, further subdivided into subcategories.

    Each section represents a different type of scent, and the relationships between the sections indicate how similar or dissimilar the fragrances are.

    Perfume creation is a meticulous and artistic process that involves blending various aromatic ingredients to craft a harmonious and appealing scent.

    Floral: This is the largest category and includes fragrances that primarily feature the scents of flowers. It is further divided into subcategories like Floral White (white flowers such as jasmine, tuberose, and lily of the valley), Floral Green (green and natural-smelling floral notes), and Floral Woody Musk (floral notes combined with woody and musky elements).

    Oriental: This category is characterised by warm, exotic, and sensual scents. It is divided into Oriental Soft (light and powdery), Oriental Floral (floral with an oriental base), and Oriental Woody (woody with an oriental base).

    Woody: Fragrances in this family feature predominantly woody scents. It includes subcategories like Woody Earthy (earthy and mossy), Woody Fresh (woody with a fresh and citrus touch), and Woody Oriental (woody with oriental base notes).

    Fresh: This category consists of crisp, clean, and refreshing scents. It includes subcategories like Aromatic Fougère (herbal and fern-like scents), Citrus (citrus-based scents), and Water (aquatic and marine scents).

    These four main categories can be further divided into more specific subcategories, comprehensively representing different fragrance types. The fragrance wheel helps both consumers and perfume professionals understand a fragrance’s aromatic composition and find scents that suit their preferences.

    Fragrance creators and marketers also use the fragrance wheel to identify market gaps and trends, allowing them to develop new and innovative perfumes that cater to different consumer preferences.

    Additionally, the fragrance wheel aids in creating harmonious blends by identifying complementary scents from different categories.

    However, it’s essential to note that the fragrance wheel is just a guide, and some fragrances may not fit neatly into a specific category. Perfumes often feature a combination of scents from various families, making them unique and distinctive.

    Nonetheless, the fragrance wheel remains valuable in the perfume industry, facilitating communication and understanding among perfume enthusiasts and professionals alike.

    As a distributor for a perfume company called FM World UK, I have used the fragrance wheel on many occasions to help potential customers choose the right scent, especially if they want to try something new.

    Men’s fragrance wheel Women’s fragrance wheel

    Sometimes, we don’t automatically recognise which family a particular scent falls into, so with the FM World wheel, we have a male and female side. There is an inner wheel with an arrow that can be moved to a designated fragrance family, and then, within that selection, we can see which perfume numbers fall within that fragrance family.

    It is also worth remembering that it is best to try a perfume sample before purchasing to ensure it suits your skin type and occasion.

    A world of fragrances

    Fragrances, also known as perfumes or scents, have been essential to human culture for thousands of years. These aromatic compositions are created to evoke pleasant sensations and stimulate our olfactory senses.

    Fragrances significantly enhance our identity, express emotions, and create lasting impressions on others. Many of us have been wearing fragrances from an early age, and some, like myself, may have experimented with garden flowers when we were younger.

    Related article: The Psychology Of Perfume

    The history of fragrances dates back to ancient civilisations like Egypt, Mesopotamia and India, where aromatic oils and natural ingredients were used for religious rituals, therapeutic purposes and beautification.

    As trade and cultural exchanges flourished, the art of perfumery spread to Greece and Rome, becoming an essential part of their societies.

    Creating a fragrance, known as perfumery, involves blending various aromatic compounds to achieve a scent that is appealing and balanced.

    Perfumers combine essential oils, aromatic extracts, synthetic molecules, and other ingredients to craft unique fragrances with different notes and accords.

    These notes are categorised into three main types: top notes, middle notes (also known as heart notes) and base notes. The relationship of these notes over time creates the fragrance’s overall character and longevity.

    Top notes are the initial, brief and temporary scents you smell immediately after applying a fragrance. They are light and refreshing, often derived from citrus fruits or other bright and zesty elements.

    Middle notes emerge after the top notes disappear and form the fragrance’s heart. They create the theme and personality of the scent, which can be floral, spicy, woody, or other distinctive accords.

    Base notes are the foundation of the fragrance and provide depth and longevity. They typically contain rich, robust ingredients like wood, musk, or vanilla. These notes will be the scent that will last through the duration of your perfume or aftershave and the ones that will sit on the skin for the longest time.

    Fragrances can be classified into several categories, such as floral, oriental, woody, citrus and gourmand. Each category has unique characteristics, making it suitable for different occasions, seasons, and personal preferences.

    Over time, fragrances have evolved, and perfumers continue to explore new ingredients and innovative techniques to create captivating scents.

    The fragrance industry has also expanded to include various product forms, such as Eau de parfum, eau de toilette, cologne, body sprays and scented lotions, catering to every individual’s needs.

    Beyond personal use, fragrances have found their way into other industries, such as aromatherapy, where certain scents are believed to have therapeutic effects on mood and emotions.

    Additionally, fragrances are used in household products, like candles and air fresheners, to create pleasant living spaces.

    Related article: Aromatherapy oils


    Crafted by Michael Edwards’s expert hands, this ingenious tool has etched its mark on the perfume industry. It simplifies the complexities of aromas and creates a shared language for enthusiasts, professionals, and consumers alike.

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  • Cologne,  History,  King,  Queen Elizabeth,  Royalty

    King Charles III’s favourite cologne

    We were curious to discover King Charles III’s favourite cologne when over 18 million people tuned in to ITV to watch the Coronation on Saturday, May 6, 2023.

    We watched the ceremony of our new King’s inauguration at Westminster Abbey, the same place where our Queen, Elizabeth II, lay to rest.

    Related article: What perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear 

    King Charles’ favourite cologne
    The King’s Coronation

    You don’t need to be a fan of the Royals or a prominent royalist to appreciate the work and effort in organising such a big event.

    It was a traditional affair, with the Coronation taking place in a stunning location and a few changes from our late Queen’s original crowning in 1953. In this current and shorter service, multiple faiths and cultures were represented across the U.K.

    It was undoubtedly a ceremony worth watching, even if you dipped in and out and watched the highlights like myself.

    Several clients showed it on the TV in their homes so I could watch several parts of the day.

    The Princess of Wales looked as stunning as ever in an embroidered Ivory silk crêpe gown designed by Alexander McQueen and a deep blue silk satin floor-length Coronation robe.

    Topped with a headpiece that any young girl would be honoured to wear, she omitted elegance.

    We also have to mention Prince Louis of Wales. This cheeky chap’s pure joy on every occasion lifts a smile to everyone’s face.

    From covering his ears when the Red Arrows flew over the palace on the late Queen’s birthday to his gorgeous facial expressions that stole the show at the King’s Coronation.

    King Charles’ favourite cologne
    The Red Arrows

    The five-year-old certainly knows how to entertain the crowds; we think he is adorable.

    The layers of the golden robe ( called the Supertunica) the King wore were impressive and quite a weight to carry.

    It weighs around 2kg (4.4lb). It was a stunning material, and we could even see from the King’s face how heavy it was without the 17th-century St Edwards crown to wear.

    King Charles’ favourite cologne
    A beautiful statue of the Kings crown

    Made of solid gold, the crown weighs almost 5lb, and it has a collection of sapphires, rubies, tourmaline, and garnets surrounding a velvet cap and ermine band.

    It is a stunning masterpiece that will always stand out for future generations. Late in the ceremony, King Charles III was seen to be wearing a lighter version, the Imperial State Crown.


    Christine Dior

    There are few of us who haven’t heard of Christian Dior, the French fashion couturier born on January 21, 1905, and who founded the company Dior on December 16, 1946.

    They are one of the most iconic perfume and clothing fashion houses today. They create their unique clothing style and produce some of the most famous fragrances in the world.

    Many celebrities are known to wear their scents and endorse them.

    Famous women such as Jennifer Aniston and Sienna Miller have also been known for wearing the renowned fashion house wardrobe.

    After Dior’s death in 1957 from a massive heart attack, another famous name in the fashion world, Yves St Laurent, was left to take over and keep the brand alive.

    He was only 21 at the time but was happy to carry on Dior’s legacy until he was called to serve in the French army in 1960, at which point he was released.

    Marc Bohan replaced YSL, alongside other famous designers who introduced handbags and shoes to the world-famous fashion house.

    Christian Dior prided himself on being a couturier and having a desire for the perfume industry, so he created his first perfume, Miss Dior, in 1947.

    In 2017, Dior reincarnated the original Miss Dior Eau de Parfum for women, a scent that is still hugely popular today. The American actress Natalie Portman has been the face of Miss Dior since 2010. The original Miss Dior perfume was a tribute to the designer’s sister, Catherine Dior.

    King Charles III’s favourite cologne

    We have covered several celebrities on the website and their favourite scent, so once our King was crowned, I was curious to find out what scent our new heir to the throne likes to use.

    Many famous faces have a signature scent, and Charles is no exception.

    Knowing how big the fragrance house has become, it’s little surprise that our King would choose one of Dior’s iconic fragrances as his signature scent.

    Eau Sauvage by Dior is a gorgeous, citrus-scented, and aromatic fragrance for men. It was released in 1966 and was the first fragrance for men from the House of Dior.

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    Top notes: lemon, bergamot, basil, caraway, rosemary, fruit notes

    Middle notes: jasmine, carnation, coriander, patchouli, orris root, sandalwood, rose, hedione, lavender

    Base notes: oakmoss, vetiver, musk, amber

    The fresh scent from this bottle is clean and lemony, which balances out the woody and earthy notes that many men love.

    The bottle’s royal style is evident from its gold-grooved design and silver belt and cap.

    Its wonderful selection of fragrance notes gives it a legendary feel and a crisp freshness that complements its floral notes.

    Many users have commented that it is a suitable unisex cologne, with a crisp, solid and soft woody scent as the base notes pop through.

    This scent is suitable for the older man, ideal for everyday use, and perfect for our King in his royal duties. It is not to be confused with Dior Sauvage, a bottle with a similar name that has more spicy and more robust fragrance notes.

    Related article: Johnny Depp fragrance.


    The captivating story behind this cologne is a testament to the enduring allure of fine fragrances and their ability to evoke emotions and memories.

    As we immerse ourselves in the aromatic world of King Charles III’s favourite cologne, we are reminded of the powerful connection between scent and personal identity, which transcends time and leaves an indelible mark on history.

    If you want to smell like a King and love citrus and fruity notes with a touch of masculine base notes, try Eau de Sauvage for yourself.

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    Dior Perfume for women

  • History,  Perfumes,  Queen Elizabeth

    What perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear?

    Our late Queen certainly had good taste in colours with her outfits, handbags and style of jewellery but what perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear?

    Everyone has their own unique scent and favourite aroma when it comes to perfume. Many have a signature scent that reminds everyone around them of their presence.

    What perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear

    Our late Sovereign never needed a particular scent to stand out or be noticed as her presence in this world was by far the greatest in the world.

    Nether the less, the Queen wanted to wear a scent for all of her duties and events that she attended so let’s take a look at what perfume our beloved Queen wore.

    According to Vogue Magazine, one of Queen Elizabeth’s favourite scents was Guerlain L’Heare Bleue. A scent that was first created way back in 1912.

    Surprisingly not as expensive as we may think either.

    Around $126.00/£108.00 from their website is a pretty reasonable price some may say, especially for someone as high profile as Her Majesty.

    Other places such as eBay will have a variety of prices so it’s worth taking a look.

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    When you click on links to various merchants on this site and make a purchase, this can result in this site earning a commission. Affiliate programs and affiliations include, but are not limited to, the eBay Partner Network.

    Take a look on eBay for Guerlain L’Heare perfume 

    We almost see a touch of royal with the shape of this perfume bottle which was designed by Raymond Guerlain. The soft top edges almost look like a scroll, used by the ancient Greeks and with a hollowed heart as its stopper, it gives a sense of royalty and romance.

    Another ‘royal’ look also shows with the blue circled label in the centre of the bottle. Some might say that it is a very fitting scent for our Queen to be wearing too when we learn of the fragrance notes behind this scent.

    Top notes: Aniseed, bergamot

    Heart notes: Tuberose, carnation, violet, rose and Neroli.

    Base notes: Tonka bean, iris, benzoin and vanilla.

    Take a look at the heart notes in particular with this scent. What a wonderful combination of flowers and those that very much speak volumes when it comes to royalty.

    Quite fitting also that L’Heure Bleuemarks the meeting of two soulmates destined to become one in the frisson of eternity “-Guerlain.com

    What perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear

    With iris being one of the most expensive and admired fragrance ingredients, it’s easy to learn why this perfume is fit for a Queen and is the key ingredient in this bottle.

    What perfume did Queen Elizabeth wear
    Iris scent makes its mark in the Queens favourite perfumes

    The top notes give a distinctive smell of aniseed with a fresh scent of bergamot – a beautiful combination of floral, citrus and tangy notes. The base notes are rich and warm in toasted almonds, vanilla, nutty, cinnamon and spicy scents







    Three stages of perfume notes


    We know that perfume goes through three stages when it is worn on the skin and we instantly smell the top notes of any perfume.

    These will be the notes that hit us instantly as soon as we spray our scent. They are our first impression of a fragrance and the first to leave your skin.

    Top notes are often fresh, citrus and refreshing and once they calm down, usually around 5 minutes of being on the skin, we then smell a selection of heart notes.

    The heart notes of a scent are the main centrepiece of a perfume and the notes we smell tend to linger between 6-8 hours after it has been sprayed.

    As these notes last a longer time than the top notes, they usually have a floral and woody scent that lingers.

    Once those heart notes have settled down, we then appreciate the base notes and these are the notes that stay for the rest of the duration of the perfume.

    Alongside the heart notes, the base notes are also the scents that those around us will continuously smell.

    HottPerfume.com Coupons

    Base notes are the foundation of perfume and almost the lasting scent and impression.

    These notes are the ones that others will remember you by, bring back fond memories and add fullness and depth to your scent.

    Often base notes are woody, with a delicate fragrance of musk and are the longer lasting within your chosen perfume.

    If you purchase a perfume or aftershave that contains 20% perfume oil, such as FM World fragrances, you will have a lasting scent for perhaps longer than 8 hours.

    This also depends on your skin type too.

    Depending on what strength perfume you have purchased, whether it be an eau de toilette, eau de perfume or perfume can also determine how long the fragrance lasts.

    Another favourite scent for the Queen

    Another popular choice of perfume that the Queen has been known to wear and affordable too is White Rose by Floris, created by Mr John Floris in the early 1800s.

    A scent that has also been worn by Florence Nightingale and is cruelty-free.

    This more simplistic design of bottle will set you back around $145.00/£80.00 so within many a perfume lovers budget.

    This bottle too, shows that the Queen does have a favourite when it comes to particular fragrance notes.

    Fragrances notes in White Rose by Floris


    Top notes: Aldehydic green and carnation

    Heart notes: Iris, rose, jasmine and violet

    Base notes: Amber, musk, and powdery notes

    • As one might expect with a name like White Rose, this fragrance is a fairly lightweight scent that doesn’t overpower and lasts for around 9 hours.

    White Rose by Floris 

    What perfume did Queen Elizabeth we

    It brings a sense of bouquet flowers with its soft choice of aroma. Another scent that has iris notes that are balanced out well with the amber and musk.

    Our Queen had great taste when it came to perfume. Classy scents to match her classic dress sense.

    Have you ever tried these perfumes that the Queen has worn? Let me know below. I’d love to hear your thoughts.

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  • Chanel,  History

    Chanel No. 5 perfume history

    Chanel No.5 perfume has an iconic and fascinating history. Whenever we mention Chanel No.5 five, there are probably very few women worldwide who haven’t heard of this famous fragrance, and many men. We automatically associate it with a classy fragrance that remains incredibly popular today, just as it was first created.

    With fragrance notes belonging to the floral perfume family group, including fruity, oriental, aldehydic, citrus, and woody notes, it captured the hearts of women, not just for its iconic name.

    So, where does the history of Chanel No. 5 perfume begin?

    A classic Chanel No.5 perfume created back in 1920.

    Chanel no.5 perfume history
    The iconic Coco Chanel

    Chanel’s No.5 perfume history

    The story begins with Coco Chanel, a remarkably clever French businesswoman. She was the darling of the Parisian social elite and set out to create a fragrance to revolutionise women’s smell.

    By the early 1920s, Chanel had already become a phenomenon in the French fashion scene. She clearly envisioned her style and projected this image to women worldwide. By 1921, she had established successful boutiques in Paris, Deauville, and Biarritz, and her success only continued to grow.

    She even owned a villa in southern France and drove her blue Rolls Royce—a classic car for a classic lady and her creation.

    With her ongoing success, she now aspired to create a fragrance that would match the essence of the new, modern women she epitomised.

    Unfortunately, Chanel’s background was quite complex and marked by challenges, and this complexity found its way into her signature fragrance.


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    This page contains affiliate links. Should you click on a link and make a purchase, I may receive compensation. 


    Chanel No.5 perfume history
    An iconic creation by Coco Chanel

    Chanel’s mother worked as a laundry woman on rural farms, and when her mother passed away, Chanel was sent to a Cistercian convent at Aubazine. Her father, on the other hand, was a market stallholder.

    Growing up in this environment, she became familiar with the scent of soap and freshly cleaned skin, which stayed with her for years.

    Chanel was very conscious about cleanliness, and when she worked with other mistresses of the rich, she often complained about their odour. The combination of body odours and musk was not a pleasant one.

    She faced challenges finding someone to commission her creation with this new fragrance, and in the 1920s, creating a fresh fragrance often involved using lemon, orange, citrus, and bergamot fragrances.

    These scents were fresh-smelling, a perfect combination for a ladies’ fragrance, but they didn’t last very well when applied to the skin. Finding a scent that lasts throughout the day is a common quest.

    During the summer of 1920, while on holiday with her lover, Chanel heard of a perfumer who could help her create the perfect perfume. It seemed like the ideal solution.

    This perfumer was a highly sophisticated man named Ernest Beaux, who lived nearby in Grasse, southern France, the world capital of perfume.

    Beaux listened to Chanel’s quest and eagerly accepted the challenge of crafting the perfect scent.

    Pick a number …Chanel No.5

    It took Beaux several months to perfect this new fragrance, and eventually, he presented Chanel with ten samples, numbered from one to five and from 20 to 24.

    “Chanel ultimately chose number five as her fragrance. Interestingly, there are rumours that the concoction for this scent resulted from a laboratory mistake.”

    Beaux’s assistant added an unprecedented quantity of aldehydes to the fragrance. Aldehydes have a soapy scent, which triggered memories of Chanel’s childhood in a convent and her later life as a mistress of luxury.”

    An iconic perfume- Chanel No 5

    The scent combined jasmine, rose, sandalwood, and vanilla notes and was an instant success—a wonderful blend of fragrances.

    Chanel invited Beaux and his friend to a popular restaurant to celebrate and sprayed the perfume around the table. Every woman passed by stopped to ask about the fragrance and its origin.

    Chanel knew she had a hit on her hands and was on her way to creating an incredible perfume. From that moment on, consumers realised they had a fragrance unlike any they had ever smelled.

    Related post: Do you sell designer perfume?

    Chanel No. 5 evolved.

    Chanel No. 5 perfume history

    The history behind the creation of Chanel No. 5 perfume BBC news

    Chanel No. 5 is a legendary and iconic perfume created by the renowned fashion house Chanel.

    Coco Chanel first introduced Chanel No. 5 in 1921. It has since become one of the world’s most famous and recognisable fragrances. It revolutionised the perfume industry and set new standards for luxury fragrances.

    Here are some key features and facts about Chanel No. 5 perfume:

    1. Composition: Chanel No. 5 is a floral-aldehyde fragrance that harmoniously blends various notes to create a complex and sophisticated scent. Its character is primarily defined by a rich floral bouquet featuring prominent May rose, jasmine, and ylang-ylang notes. The fragrance also incorporates aldehydes, which impart a unique and sparkling quality.

    2. Timeless Appeal: Chanel No. 5 is renowned for its timeless appeal and enduring popularity. It has remained a symbol of elegance and sophistication for over a century and has transcended generations, captivating women of different ages and backgrounds.

    3. Marilyn Monroe Connection: Chanel No. 5 gained even more fame when American actress and icon Marilyn Monroe declared that she wore nothing but Chanel No. 5 to bed. Her endorsement helped solidify the perfume’s association with glamour and sensuality.

    “4. The Mystery of the Name: The origin of the name” Chanel No. 5″ is often debated. Some theories suggest that Coco Chanel chose it because it was the fifth sample presented to her by the perfumer Ernest Beaux, while others believe that she liked the number five and considered it lucky.”4. The Mystery of the Name: The origin of the name “Chanel No. 5” is often debated. Some theories suggest that Coco Chanel chose it because it was the fifth sample presented to her by the perfumer Ernest Beaux, while others believe that she liked the number five and considered it lucky.

    5. The Bottle: Chanel No. 5 is presented in an elegant, minimalist bottle designed by Coco Chanel herself. The bottle’s design reflects her preference for simplicity and understated luxury. It features clean lines, a rectangular shape, and a simple black-and-white label with the Chanel logo.

    6. Enduring Popularity: Chanel No. 5 has maintained its status as one of the best-selling perfumes worldwide for many decades. Its popularity can be attributed to its timeless scent, association with luxury and sophistication, and the brand’s continuous efforts to promote and reinvent the fragrance.

    Over the years, Chanel has introduced variations of the original No. 5, including different concentrations (e.g., Eau de Parfum, Eau de Toilette) and limited edition releases. These variations offer different intensities and interpretations of the classic Chanel No. 5 scent while maintaining its essence.

    Chanel No. 5 represents a significant milestone in the history of perfumery and continues to be cherished by fragrance enthusiasts and Chanel aficionados worldwide. It embodies Coco Chanel’s timeless elegance and artistic vision, making it an enduring symbol of luxury and femininity.

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    Chanel no 5 perfume history

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